About Journal

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences (AJAS) is a Journal of Scientific Research on Agricultural Sciences published by the University Of Anbar - College Of Agriculture since 2005 under the license of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY). The journal publishes twice a year (June and December). AJAS aims to disseminate distinguished scientific research to various fields of agricultural sciences. We invite original work and research in various fields of agricultural sciences and related papers, reviews and short communications of content related to agriculture written in Arabic and English. A double-blind peer-reviewing system is used to assure the quality of the publication. We are also using Turnitin to prevent plagiarism and to ensure the originality of our submitted manuscripts. The journal is not financially supported by any governmental or non-governmental organization.

 

ANATOMICAL , CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL STUDY OF ARTEMISIA HERBA-ALBA ASSO. GROWTH WILDLY WEST OF ANBAR PROVINCE

T. A. Hamid , S. A. Eiliwi , A. W. Jumaa

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

This study aimed to studied importance of Artimisa herba-alba were growth wildly in west of Anbar governorate, when we studied anatomical and chemically It was performed for many organs include from root to fruits and seeds, the anatomically study description different tissues of organs (leaves blades, petioles, stems and roots), and measured the details. Compositions and chemical contents showed some vitamins i.e. A,C and minerals (Na, Ca, P, K, Fe and Zn), and essential nutrition's contents like proteins, carbohydrate, for that’s the Artemisia was important sources of nutrition and therapeutic benefit, Aim of this study was to assessment a dosage of equeous of vegetative for A. herba alba growth in Iraq on glucose level in rabbits after 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours, this research showed a scientific result in reduced a sugar in serum blood of experimental animal

EFFECT OF WATER EXTRACT OF POMEGRANATE PEELS IN THE GROWTH AND PATHOGENIC PYTHIUM SP. IN THE LABORATORY AND SOIL MEDIUM

S. S. Saleem , M. A. Farhan , N. A. Markeb , A.

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

The results showed a test of three concentrations pomegranate peels extract 2, 4 and 8% inhibition of Pythium sp. That the concentration of 2% achieved the highest effect inhibiting the fungus growth of 0.63 mm compared with the control treatment 3.3 mm in PDA medium after 6 days at 25 ° C, the experiment of pH in the effectiveness of the water extract for pomegranate peels in the inhibition growth of Pythium sp. in the PDA medium, there were significant differences between pH (4.5, 6.5, 7.5) with growth rates of 0.1400, 0.2367, 0.2300 g respectively terms of dry weight measured after 6 days at 25 ° C in a shaking incubator. The results of the tannic acid experiment showed that the concentration of 8% achieved the highest inhibition of fungus growth Pythium sp. at 1.03 mm compared with the control treatment of 2.8 mm after 6 days. The results of treatment of soil contaminated with Pythium sp. and water extract for pomegranate peels at a concentration 2% showed an increase in germination rates of tomatoes seeds and emergence 70% compared with the control treatment of non-contaminated soil with fungus

EFFECT PACKAGING CHICKEN PARTS WITH MANUFACTURED LOCALLY EDIBLE FILMS CONTAIN FEATHER PROTEIN ON TOTAL COUNT OF MICROORGANISMS DURING COLD STORAGE

A. A. AL- Azzami , Z. M. AL-Dhanki

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

This study aimed to determine the efficacy of coating three broiler chicken pieces (breast, thigh and drumsticks) with locally made edible biofilms on maintaining the quality specifications of such pieces. The coat was made from keratin isolated from broiler chicken feathers. The samples then were stored at three different period of times over 35 days starting from 10th April 2018 to 16th May 2018. The study comprised a total of 9 treatments according to the two major factors involved in the project; keratin coating and storage of 0,7 and 14 days. In the first 3 treatments, storage was not used but samples were allocated either to not coated, coated with 2.5 gram keratin biofilm or 5 gram (T1, T2 and T3, respectively). But the three later treatments where all stored for 7 days in a similar way as before (T4, T5 and T6), respectively. While in the last 3 treatments a storage of 14 days was applied and coating was utilized as either nil coating, 2.5g and 5g keratin biofilm (T7, T8 and T9), respectively. Results of the study showed that coating of the broiler chicken pieces with either 2.5 or 5G keratin layer contributed to maintain better meat quality and specifications. This bio packaging had also brought about good preservation of such specifications within acceptable levels when compared to non-coating technique. Similarly the total count of microorganisms (aerobic, total coliforms and total yeast and mould count were also less when coating was used and as expected the higher total count of aerobic bacteria was found when samples stored for 14 days in cold condition but without biofilm coating.

EFFECT OF KINETIN IN GROWTH PEPPER IRRIGATED WITH DIFFERENT SALINE WATER

Z. H. AL-Rawi , Y. K. AL- Hadithiy

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

A Plastic pot experiment was conducted in agreenhouse conditions during the autumn season to study the effect of kinetin in the growth of capsicum which irrigated by different saline water type (syzar).The study included two factors:the first was salinity of Irrigation water in four levels (1.1,2,4 and 6) dS m-1 have the symbbl (S0,S1,S2 and S3) respectively and the second factor was spray with growth regular (kinetin) on plant with four levels (0,50,100 and 150) mg L-1. The results refers to: Decrease of plant high, one plant yield, Phosphoeous and potassium coucent ration in shoot part from 33.39 cm,35.27 g plant-1,4.9 g kg-1,19.6 g kg-1 respectively at control treatment to 23.21 cm, 24.53 g plant-1, 3.2 g kg-1, 17.4 g.kg-1 respectively. While nitrogen conceutration in shoot part was increased from 13.3 g kg-1 at control treatment to 17.7 at highest level of salilinty Irrigation water. The spray with rinetin at the level 100 mg L-1 achieved highest results in plant high, one plant yield, Phosphorous concentration in shoot part 31.40 cm, 35.21 gm plant-1,4.3 g kg-1 respectively compard to that of control 25.64 cm, 27.80 gm plant-1,3.8 g kg-1 respectively, while spray with 150 mg L-1 achieved high rest valve for Phosphorous and potisum concentration in shoot part 16.2 and 18,7 g kg-1 compared with control treatment 14.6 and 18.2 g kg-1. The interaction between stady factor was significant and the high value of the most characteristics was achieved by spray with 100 mg L-1 from kinetin and Irrigated with 1.1 dS.m-1 water, This treatment gave 37.27 cm, 41.17 gm plant-1 5.0 g kg-1, 19.7 g kg-1 for plant high, one plant yield, Phosphorous and potassium concentration compared with out addition kinetin and irrigation with 6 dS m-1 saline water 18.80 cm , 20.68 g plant-1, 2.9 g kg-1, 17.1 g kg-1 respectively.

Economic Analysis of Sunflower Crop in Wasit governorate AL-Kut Province Applicable Model– Field Study 2006

Najah A. Abdulkareem

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

Despite the importance of sunflower crop as oil crop and a source for nutritional protein, it still cultured in narrow limit all over the country due to the difficulties that facing its culturing which are represented by heavy and cost serving processes required to produce this crop. So, this study aimed to estimate total production cost function for this crop and calculate the percent of achieved size economics in Wasit governorate for the agricultural season 2006. The estimate results indicated that variable cost had the highest percentage of total crop cost for the studied sample as it represented 90% of the total cost. That was because the items of variable costs included most sunflower production costs since maintenance cost took the first tank (22.1%) followed by fertilizers (19.43%) , then machines and instruments repairing (14.6%) followed by the other items. The first costs represented only 10% of total costs due to the absence of most of their items. The results of this study demonstrated that the typical production size of the crop is 126.06 tons. The country estate possession size of the studied sample ranged from 10 to 300 hectare with none of size classes has the typical production size which is determined by this study. The cubic function was used as it has high significance indicators.

Water Crisis and its Influence on Agricultural Sector in Iraq for period 1990-2007)

Bassim H. Al- Badri , Ahmed A. Muhammad

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

The scarcity of water resources in Agricultural sector is very critical now. The irrigated agricultural sector in Iraq balled about (85%) from water resources that belongs to the agricultural sector . In the same time there was decreasing in water amount supplying to Iraq from Tigris and Euphrates by the rate (2%), the decreasing in water amount in Tigris was (3.3 %), while the increasing in water amount in Euphrates record annual average growth about (1.81%) in period (1991-2007), this decreasing influence on quality of two rivers water because the salt increasing in both of them. The receptor water rate belong to agriculture in this period was (46.68) milliard cubic meter yearly, and total requirements of water to agricultural purposes was (30.05) milliard cubic meter yearly in study period .The water lost rate were (16.36) milliard cubic meter yearly in (1990-2007).

The Economic Using of Fertilizers on the Wheat Production

Imad A. Al-Sonbul

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

This research aims studding the optimal economic using for varieties levels of nitrogen and sulfuric fertilizers added in field experiment on breads Wheat (class Abu Graib 3) during two seasons respectively at Baghdad University. Application of (60 kg N and 400 kg Sulfur) per hectare resulted the optimal combination with maximize profit which difference from the combination technicians choose (180 kg N and 1200 kg Sulfur) per hectare. Another aim to this research to be application stretch for the econometric researches, include all the crops, agricultural food products and for the agricultural production resources to raise the level of technical field and the agricultural experimental and researches centrals.

Use of Honeycomb method selection to improve oil content of sunflower seeds

Hashem R. Latheth

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

Selective programe by honeycomb method was used to improve oil content of sunflower seeds (Coban) cultivar. This programme started with progeny test. Individual plants were selected in spring of 2006 continuoly for five selective cycles. Selection was carried out for the best oil content and grain yield on the basis of parent off spring regression for progeny test. Plant performance was preserved by sibbing between the individuals of the same progeny. Results show that selection had anoted impact on oil content, which have been increased from 36.45 to 43.52 %, this increament was 7.07 % as compared to the original community. The genetic gain average for oil content for each cycle was 0.67. On the other hand higher genetic gain was 6.3%, and for each selection cycle reached 3.5%. The average of heritage percentage reached 42.7% for each cycle. The best genotype among the genotype stubied that gave the highest oil content were HCC, HCC9, HCC10. The percentages, however, were 43.96, 43.35 and 43.23% respectively. It is also obvious that selection did not effect significantly the plant highet, seed number and on plant yield.

DETECTION OF THE SOME HEAVY METALS RESIDUES IN THE LOCAL BULLS TISSUES IN KIRKUK DURING THE WINTER AND SUMMER SEASONS

A. A. Alperkhdrim , M. I. Abdullah and Z. Kh. Khid

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

For the purpose of investigating the levels of some heavy contamination metals in muscle, liver and kidney meat for Cattle in Kirkuk governorate in winter and summer seasons, samples were collected randomly from males (aged 16-18 months) from three districts of Kirkuk governorate (Downtown, Daquq and Debs) During the December and February (winter season) and July and August months of (summer season). There was a significant effect (p?0.05) on the factors (meat type, location and season) in the concentration of lead, Kidney meat in the Downtown in the winter season recorded the highest concentration of lead and significant difference (6.678 ppm) The lowest concentration (0.881 ppm) was found in Liver in Winter. The highest concentration level of cadmium in muscle in summer season from Downtown (3.336 ppm), and lowers Concentration of cadmium (2.106 ppm) recorded in kidney from Daquq in summer season. The concentration of zinc in the Liver at the Downtown in the summer season was the highest concentration (140.052 ppm), while the Kidney in the winter season from Downtown recorded the lowest concentration (30.54 ppm). For Copper the liver in the Downtown in the winter season had the highest concentration (24.520 ppm), while the Liver from the Downtown at summer was recorded lowest concentration (2.383 ppm). For Cobalt, in winter season in Kirkuk, the Muscle recorded the highest concentration of cobalt (7.344 ppm), while the lowest concentration was recorded in Kidney the Winter season from Downtown (1.062 ppm). All types of metals recorded levels higher than the internationally accepted limits.

Effect of lime content of the soil on Its spectral Reflectivity of the Soil

Ahmed M. Mohammad ,Wissam A. Abed , Azhar A. Has

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

An experiment was achieved in laboratories of college of Agriculture / Anbar University. A sample of clay loam soil with 50% lime content was brought from sefen mountain, Shaqlawa district / Erbil province, to study the effect of lime percentage on soil spectral reflectivity. Different lime percentage were removed from origin soil using 0.1 N HCl to obtain same soil texture with 40%, 29.5%, 24.5%, 20%, 15.8% and 9.4% lime contents. Spectroradiometer was used to measure the reflectance of the soil with different lime levels at 22% soil moisture content. The result showed an increasing of the soil reflectance with increasing of lime content. Also the result showed an absorption band at 2350 nanometer was appeard, which may be attributed to the presence of lime in soil. It was noted that the depth of the band was increasing with increasing lime percentage in the soil. Results also showed that a significiant correlation between lime content and reflectance in the all studied bands, especially with the two near infrared bands (B6 and B9) was found, whereas the correlation coefficient (r) for the two bands were 0.968 and 0.958, respectively. The quantitative relationship between the two variables was also found. The linear, quadratic and cubic models were efficient to forecasting lime content from reflectance data at near infrared band (B6). The determination coefficient (R2) for the three models were 0.93, 0.98 and 0.99, respectively. While the standard error values were 3.8, 4.8 and 2.7, respectively.

Exogenous application of Ethephon effects on some growth and yield characteristics of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.Moench)

Nihad Mohammed Abood

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

The experiment was carried out at two locations, the first in Ramadi - Kaldia (80 km) west of Baghdad, the second at the farm of College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, during the spring season 2017, in order to study the effect of concentrations and application growth stage of ethephon on growth, yield, and its components of sorghum (cv. Buhooth 70). Split plot arrangement was used according to RCBD. The application growth stage 4, 6 and 8 leaf growth stage, occupied the main plots while Ethephon concentrations 0, 500, 1000 and 1500 mg L-1, occupied the sub-plots. Results showed at both seasons, that the high concentration (1500 mg .L-1) gave the lowest plant height, leaf area, number of leaves and grain yield, thus reducing the biological yield 2.302 and 2.515 ton ha-1, for both locations respectively, While the concentrations 1000 and 500 mg.L-1, gave the highest grain yield 3.976 and 3.741 ton ha-1, for both locations respectively, the application times according to growth stages also had a significant effect on number of days to flowering stage and maturation also weight of 500 grains and grain yield. Application at 4 and 6 leaf growth stages gave highest grain yield in both locations 3.464, 3.673 ton ha-1 respectively, also the most traits under study were significantly influenced by the interaction between concentrations and application time, the highest yield 5.127 ton ha-1 in Ramadi location, was obtained from interaction treatment (1000 mg L-1 * 8 leaf growth stage) was while in Baghdad location the interaction treatment (500 mg L-1 * 6 leaf growth stage) gave the highest yield 4.623 ton ha-1

Using x-ray and FT-IR teqencue to study and comparative two methods of carbonate minerals removal

Muhammod .A. Latef

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

The objective of this study was to obtain the of best method carbonate removal from soil without effect in mineralogical properties. Three soil treatments for soil high content in calcite (Tall Keef region).Were used HCl acid (0.2N), sodium acetate pH (5) treatment and control treatment were conducted compared with control treatment.Results showed Bulk X-ray and XRDclay mineral were that use of HCl acid Caused to removal all carbonate without the effecting in quality and quantity of minerals Comparison with first treatment that it was not great influence. The group of mineral were diagnosed for the three treatments by using the Bulk x-ray showed dominate quartz,calcite,palygorskite,feldspar and kaolinite respectively,while the XRD for clay realated the rule of chlorite, illite,semctite and kaolinite respectively,as for FT-IR appearance group are bands important (1450 )cm-1,which represents carbonate group (dolomite-calcite)and Disappearance with third treatment without second,therefore acetate method is considered inappropriate for measurements which means to remove the carbonate. Meaning that use of HCl acid (0.2), N is optimum method.

Effect of potassium fertilizer and foliar application with Copper in growth and yield of broad bean Vicia Faba L.

Basheer Hamad Abdullah AL Duleimi , Anmar Ismael

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

A field experiment was carried out in loamy-clay silty in winter season of 2014 in Anbar Governorate-Hisaiba region/Al-Khalidiyah district that located on 43° longitude and 33° latitude, in order to know the effect of foliar application with four concentrations of copper 0, 10, 20, 30 mg Cu L-1 and four concentration with potassium 0, 50, 100 and 150 Kg ha-1 were added to the soil in growth, yield and its quality of broad bean- Spanish variety (cv. Luz De Otono). Split-plot arrangement. Was used in Randomized Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D.) with four replications. The experiment results were summarized as follows: Copper concentrations significantly affected in all studied traits. The concentration of 30 mg Cu L-1 gave highest average of plant height, potassium ratio in leaves, root length, pod number, 100 seeds weight (140.75g) grain yield of plaint (68.09g) percentage in seeds (28.97%), while 20 mg Cu L-1 gave highest average of cu percentage in leaves and 10 mg Cu L-1 gave highest average of leaf area.Potassium levels significantly affected in all studied traits. 100 kg K ha-1 gave the highest average of, leaf area for plant, root length 100-seed weight(138.59g), seed yield in plaint(71.76g), while 150 kg K.ha-1 was superior in plant height, concentration of Cu and K in leaves, number of pod in plant and protein percentage in seeds (29.69%). The interaction between K levels and Cu significantly affected significantly in all studied traits, except the, protein percentage in seeds. The combination of 150 Kg K ha-1 + 30 mg Cu L-1 gave highest average of number of pod in plant (19.09 pod), seed yield in plaint (83.41g).

ROLE OF GROWTH REGULATORS BRS AND CPPU IN GROWTH AND LEAVES MINERAL AND HORMONAL CONTENT OF OLIVE TRANSPLANTS

E. H. Elsadig , E. A. Al-Hadethi , T. A. Hamdullah

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

This study was conducted in the olive orchard, in Habbaniyah city, Anbar province 84 km west of Baghdad during 2018 growing seasons to investigate the influence of brassinolide (BRs) and CPPU spray on 2 year's old trees of “Nebali” olive cultivar. This study included two treatments: three levels of spraying of BRs, 0 (BR0), 1mg L-1 (BR1) and 2mg L-1 (BR2) and four levels of spraying of cytokinins (CPPU), 0 (C0), 2.5mg L-1 (C2.5), 5mg L-1 (C5) and 10mg L-1 (C10) and their interaction. Treatments were replicated three times with two transplants in experimental unit at factorial experiment in a RCBD. The number of trees used was 72 trees. The experimental results showed that BRs spray at 2 mg L-1 gave the highest leaves chlorophyll content of 62.69 SPAD units, leaves dry weight of 29.49 %, highest leaf area of 6.80 cm2, leaf nitrogen content of 1.169 %, highest leaf IAA content of 44.49 ?g g-1 FW and highest leaf GA content of 150.24 ?g g-1 FW. Results also showed that CPPU spray at levels 10 mg L-1 superiority of the control treatment and gave the highest leaves chlorophyll content of 62.89 SPAD units, leaves dry weight of 28.92 %, leaf IAA content of 41.82 ?g g-1 FW and highest leaf GA content of 134.00 ?g g-1 FW .The lowest value of these parameters was found in the control (BR0C0)

Influence of Deficit Irrigation on some Growth and Yield Parameters and Water Use of Maize under Drip System II. Crop Production and Water Use Efficiency

Ahmed M. Mohammed , Misha'l A. Kh. Al-Duliami , N

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

A field experiment has been carried out in Autumn – 2013 on corn (Zea mays L.) var. 5018 to study the effect of irrigation depth on plant yield of total dry weight, cobs and grain. A surface drip irrigation system was used after field evaluation for the system at 50 Kpa pressure to determine the actual discharge of the emitters and some technical specifications of the system. The experiment included 13 treatments. namely; C100 as a control treatment, (V20, V40, V60 , V80) as a treatments that exposure to; 20, 40, 60 and 80% moisture stress in compare with control at vegetation stage, while (F20, F40, F60, F80), and (GF20, GF40, GF60, GF80) are treatments that exposure to the same ratios of moisture stress at flowering and grain formation stages, respectively. The treatments were distributed according to Randomized Complete Block Deign (R.C.B.D.). Total dry weight, cobs and grain were measured at the end of season. Control treatment achieved the highest value of total dry weight, cobs and grain, which were 546, 298 and 230 gm.plant-1, respectively. In addition, the production of stress treatment (GF80) did not differ with control treatment. GF80 treatment achieved the highest rate of water use efficiency reached to 2.88 kg. m-3 comparison with 2.84 kg. m-3 for control treatment. Consumptive use was 732 mm.season-1 .which were 117, 325, and 157 and 124 mm at germination, vegetation, flowering and grain formation stages, respectively. The study proved that vegetative growth stage was the more sensitive for moisture stress than other stages.

Effect of lime content of the soil on Its spectral Reflectivity of the Soil

Ahmed M. Mohammad ,Wissam A. Abed , Azhar A. Has

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

An experiment was achieved in laboratories of college of Agriculture / Anbar University. A sample of clay loam soil with 50% lime content was brought from sefen mountain, Shaqlawa district / Erbil province, to study the effect of lime percentage on soil spectral reflectivity. Different lime percentage were removed from origin soil using 0.1 N HCl to obtain same soil texture with 40%, 29.5%, 24.5%, 20%, 15.8% and 9.4% lime contents. Spectroradiometer was used to measure the reflectance of the soil with different lime levels at 22% soil moisture content. The result showed an increasing of the soil reflectance with increasing of lime content. Also the result showed an absorption band at 2350 nanometer was appeard, which may be attributed to the presence of lime in soil. It was noted that the depth of the band was increasing with increasing lime percentage in the soil. Results also showed that a significiant correlation between lime content and reflectance in the all studied bands, especially with the two near infrared bands (B6 and B9) was found, whereas the correlation coefficient (r) for the two bands were 0.968 and 0.958, respectively. The quantitative relationship between the two variables was also found. The linear, quadratic and cubic models were efficient to forecasting lime content from reflectance data at near infrared band (B6). The determination coefficient (R2) for the three models were 0.93, 0.98 and 0.99, respectively. While the standard error values were 3.8, 4.8 and 2.7, respectively.



Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences


Publisher: University of Anbar
E-Mail: anbar-agri-jour@uoanbar.edu.iq
Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Dr. Yas K. Al-Hadithi