About Journal

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences (AJAS) is a Journal of Scientific Research on Agricultural Sciences published by the University Of Anbar - College Of Agriculture since 2005 under the license of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY). The journal publishes twice a year (June and December). AJAS aims to disseminate distinguished scientific research to various fields of agricultural sciences. We invite original work and research in various fields of agricultural sciences and related papers, reviews and short communications of content related to agriculture written in Arabic and English. A double-blind peer-reviewing system is used to assure the quality of the publication. We are also using Turnitin to prevent plagiarism and to ensure the originality of our submitted manuscripts. The journal is not financially supported by any governmental or non-governmental organization.

 

OPTIMAL CONDITIONS FOR EXTRACTION OF ANTHOCYANINS FROM SHELLS OF TWO LOCAL CULTIVARS OF EGGPLANT

M. A. Qasim , E. Z. Naji

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

This study was carried out in the laboratories of the Department of Food Sciences in the Colleges of Agriculture / University of Tikrit and the College of Agriculture / Anbar University for the period from 9/10/2018 to 1/5/2019 with the aim of extracting the anthocyanins pigments from the peels of two varieties of eggplant (Solanum melogena L), namely. Hytech and Hauser, which were grown in Yusufiya / Baghdad. Several solvents were used in the extraction of anthocyanins from the two types above, including (acidified ethanol, tartaric, malic and citric) in order to determine the best variety and the optimal conditions for extraction, and the results showed that the highest proportion of anthocyanins obtained was from the Hitech variety with a value of 89.35 mg / 100 gm compared to the variety. Hauser, as the proportion of anthocyanins obtained was 67.12 mg / 100 g, using acidified ethanol as the best solvent for the extraction compared with other solvents used. The results of the optimum extraction conditions also indicated that the best extraction temperature used was 40 ° C, the best time was 75 minutes, and the best mixing ratio was 1: 10.

EFFECT INTERCROPPING SYSTEMS OF (MAIZE AND MANGBEAN) ON YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS AND QUALITY CHARACTERS OF MAIZE CROP

N. A. Sabri and M. A. Abed

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

A field experiment was conducted in the (Juwaba) Arund area of Ramadi city in the spring and autumn seasons 2017. To study the effect of intercropping systems and maize varieties on the yield and its components and the quality characters of maize crop, maize varieties (booth 106, 5018, 5012 and French cultivar) were used. The experiment was carried out according to the design of (RCBD) and in the order of the split plot, cultivar wear arranged in Maine poke the main plots and the secondary plots occupies (the intercropping systems). The results showed that the intercropping system 1: 2 was superior in number of ears per plant which gave 1.48 and 1.70 ear in the spring and autumn seasons respectively, also it was superior in the average of 500 grains weight in the spring season by giving 155.4 gm, also the same system in the grain yield in the autumn season by giving 10.96-ton ha-1. While the cultivars, The French cultivar was superior in spring season in seed yield which gave the highest value 7.99 ton ha-1, while the cultivar 5018 was superior in the autumn season by giving the highest grain yield was 11.48 ton ha-1, while the qualitative characters, sole crop for maize was excellence in the percentage of oil on the rest of the farming systems in the autumn season only gave higher mean about 4.74% ,while the intercropping system 1:2 exceeded the in percentage of protein in seeds about 10.32% in spring and autumn seasons.

MEASURING AND MODELING THE SHRINKAGE CHARACTERISTIC CURVE OF SOILS WITH DIFFERENT GYPSUM CONTENT

N. K. Yassin and A. W. Al-Kayssi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

A laboratory experiments were carried out to study and modeling the effect of soil gypsum content on soil shrinkage characteristic curve (SSCC) of gypsiferous shrinkage curve. Soil samples with 100 (G2), 150 (G3), 200 (G4), 250 (G5), 350(G6) g kg-1 gypsum content were prepared by mixing materials from surface soil layer with low gypsum content (G1) 60.6 g kg-1 and sub-surface soil layer with high gypsum content (G7) 433.9 g kg-1. SSCC was measured for each soil sample at the moisture tension of 0,3,6,15,33,100,500,700,1000 and 1500 kPa, the results indicated that SSCC of the studied gypsiferous soils (G1–G7) included only three shrinkage stages. The proportional shrinkage stage formed the bulk part of the SSCC which ranged between 46–84 % for the gypsiferous soils samples G1–G6, the residual shrinkage stage was less than proportional shrinkage stage of the SSCC and ranged between 11–49 % for the gypsiferous soils samples G1–G6, and Zero shrinkage in all samples of gypsum soils. The results showed a significant agreement between the measured and predicated SSCC values calculated. The coefficient of determination ranged between 0.9961 and 0.988 for all studied gypsiferous soils.

EFFECT OF PLOWING AND IRRIGATION SCHEDULING ON SEASONAL WATER CONSUMPTION, YIELD AND ROOT DISTRIBUTION OF MUNG BEAN UNDER SURFACE AND DRIP IRRIGATION

M. A. Khalil,I. K. Al-Hadeethi and S. A. Salim

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

Two field experiments were carried out in the feed crop studies station of the Ministry of Agriculture - Haditha agriculture division located in the village of Sakran - Haditha district 260 km west of Baghdad. The location lies on longitude 42° 22' 21'' east and longitude 34° 08' 23'' north, and 80 m above sea level, On the ground dimensions (21 × 30 m) for each experiment, during the autumn season 2018. The aim of this study is to find out the role of soil surface crusting and its relationship with tillage pattern, irrigation interval and its relationship with soil moisture content, productivity of mung bean, under surface and drip irrigation methods. The treatments of each experiment were distributed individually using Split-Plot Design, with three replications. Treatments were distributed randomly, with each experiment included two experiments on six treatments using zero tillage mode T0, minimum tillage T1 and conventional tillage T2 and two irrigation intervals are two days I1 and four days I2. The results showed superiority of seasonal water consumption values for both irrigation methods when a comma spacing irrigations four days (I2) it reached 403.51 mm and 207.058 mm for the methods of surface irrigation and drip irrigation respectively, T1I1 treatment was superior over similar surface irrigation treatments in grain yield, where the grain yield of 2.52 t ha-¹, T2I1 treatment also was superior in grain yields, reaching to 1,745 t ha-1, when drip irrigation method was used, The results showed that the longest height and the highest dry root weight was for T0I2 treatment reached to 0.33m and 14 gm, respectively when drip irrigation method was used, while the root length for the T1I1 treatment was 0.29 m and the highest dry root weight of 13 g was for T2I1 treatment when drip irrigation method was used also, The water use efficiency by using drip irrigation method was superior by 1.408 kg m-3 for T2I1 treatment and the highest water use efficiency was 1.11 kg m-3 for T1I1 treatment when surface irrigation method used

THE EFFECT OF FEEDING ON SKIM MILK AND FORTIFIED SKIM MILK WITH PREBIOTIC ON BLOOD PARAMETERS IN RATS

W. A. Alhmdani, H. I. Ali and S. Gh. Al-Shawi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

The study was undertaken in the Animal House of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Basra, to explore the effect of feeding on skim milk and skim milk enriched by many type prebiotics FOS, XOS, and RS on the blood parameters and heart weights, liver and spleen in rats. Thirty Albino rats with weights ranging from 200-170 g were randomly distributed on the biomass weight to five treatments of six replicates rats. The rats fed on a standard diet. The first treatment rats dosing 4ml distilled water; second treatment rats dosing 4ml skim milk; third treatment rats dosing 4ml skim milk with 1.5 g / kg FOS; fourth treatment rats dosing 4ml skim milk with 1.5 g / kg RS and the Fifth treatment T5 rats dosing skim milk with 1.5g/kg XOS for three months. The results of the two months showed a significant decrease in P <0.05 in LDL, VLDL triglyceride, TG, blood sugar, liver enzymes ALP, ALT, AST, and white blood cells and their ratios when comparing the addition coefficients with the control treatment, The fifth treatment with the rest of the addition coefficients. Significant P<0.05 was observed in the cell Red blood and sebaceous blood were added in comparison with the control group with a significant superiority of the fifth treatment with the other additive factors No significant differences were observed in the relative weight of the liver and spleen while the difference was significant P<0.05 for the relative weight of the heart.

OPTIMAL CONDITIONS FOR EXTRACTION OF ANTHOCYANINS FROM SHELLS OF TWO LOCAL CULTIVARS OF EGGPLANT

M. A. Qasim , E. Z. Naji

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

This study was carried out in the laboratories of the Department of Food Sciences in the Colleges of Agriculture / University of Tikrit and the College of Agriculture / Anbar University for the period from 9/10/2018 to 1/5/2019 with the aim of extracting the anthocyanins pigments from the peels of two varieties of eggplant (Solanum melogena L), namely. Hytech and Hauser, which were grown in Yusufiya / Baghdad. Several solvents were used in the extraction of anthocyanins from the two types above, including (acidified ethanol, tartaric, malic and citric) in order to determine the best variety and the optimal conditions for extraction, and the results showed that the highest proportion of anthocyanins obtained was from the Hitech variety with a value of 89.35 mg / 100 gm compared to the variety. Hauser, as the proportion of anthocyanins obtained was 67.12 mg / 100 g, using acidified ethanol as the best solvent for the extraction compared with other solvents used. The results of the optimum extraction conditions also indicated that the best extraction temperature used was 40 ° C, the best time was 75 minutes, and the best mixing ratio was 1: 10.

EFFECT INTERCROPPING SYSTEMS OF (MAIZE AND MANGBEAN) ON YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS AND QUALITY CHARACTERS OF MAIZE CROP

N. A. Sabri and M. A. Abed

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

A field experiment was conducted in the (Juwaba) Arund area of Ramadi city in the spring and autumn seasons 2017. To study the effect of intercropping systems and maize varieties on the yield and its components and the quality characters of maize crop, maize varieties (booth 106, 5018, 5012 and French cultivar) were used. The experiment was carried out according to the design of (RCBD) and in the order of the split plot, cultivar wear arranged in Maine poke the main plots and the secondary plots occupies (the intercropping systems). The results showed that the intercropping system 1: 2 was superior in number of ears per plant which gave 1.48 and 1.70 ear in the spring and autumn seasons respectively, also it was superior in the average of 500 grains weight in the spring season by giving 155.4 gm, also the same system in the grain yield in the autumn season by giving 10.96-ton ha-1. While the cultivars, The French cultivar was superior in spring season in seed yield which gave the highest value 7.99 ton ha-1, while the cultivar 5018 was superior in the autumn season by giving the highest grain yield was 11.48 ton ha-1, while the qualitative characters, sole crop for maize was excellence in the percentage of oil on the rest of the farming systems in the autumn season only gave higher mean about 4.74% ,while the intercropping system 1:2 exceeded the in percentage of protein in seeds about 10.32% in spring and autumn seasons.

MEASURING AND MODELING THE SHRINKAGE CHARACTERISTIC CURVE OF SOILS WITH DIFFERENT GYPSUM CONTENT

N. K. Yassin and A. W. Al-Kayssi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

A laboratory experiments were carried out to study and modeling the effect of soil gypsum content on soil shrinkage characteristic curve (SSCC) of gypsiferous shrinkage curve. Soil samples with 100 (G2), 150 (G3), 200 (G4), 250 (G5), 350(G6) g kg-1 gypsum content were prepared by mixing materials from surface soil layer with low gypsum content (G1) 60.6 g kg-1 and sub-surface soil layer with high gypsum content (G7) 433.9 g kg-1. SSCC was measured for each soil sample at the moisture tension of 0,3,6,15,33,100,500,700,1000 and 1500 kPa, the results indicated that SSCC of the studied gypsiferous soils (G1–G7) included only three shrinkage stages. The proportional shrinkage stage formed the bulk part of the SSCC which ranged between 46–84 % for the gypsiferous soils samples G1–G6, the residual shrinkage stage was less than proportional shrinkage stage of the SSCC and ranged between 11–49 % for the gypsiferous soils samples G1–G6, and Zero shrinkage in all samples of gypsum soils. The results showed a significant agreement between the measured and predicated SSCC values calculated. The coefficient of determination ranged between 0.9961 and 0.988 for all studied gypsiferous soils.

TEMPORAL VARIATION OF AGRICULTURE LAND DEGRADATION AND ESTIMATION OF RELATIVE YIELD FOR SOME MAJOR CROPS WEST FALLUJA CITY

S. M. Al-Juraisy and M. K. Al-Rawi

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

The study area is located in the lower part of the Euphrates basin at the modern plain of Mesopotamian at 169 path and 37 row landsat7, the area was 8051.94 hectare. Land degradation was studied using Land Degradation Index (LDI), to determine some of the quantitate parameters of land degradation degree as relative extent, degradation rate, severity of degradation level. in the study area. The Relative yield of some major crops (tractum, bare, zea, and cotton) was assessed using the relative yield equation. The Results showed that there is a continuous increase in the areas of lands with severe and very severe degradation with value of (10.21hactar/year,16.5hectar/year). with a mild increase in the area of land of slight degradation with value of (3.43h/y with ratio of 0.04% year with a significant with decrease in lands with moderate degradation by 30.17 hectare/year with ratio 0.37%. which shows the seriousness of the degradation danger in the study area due to the continuous transformation of lands to sever and very sever degradation areas. Area with 72.42% of total area is very low Relative yield for maize planting and 46.46 % of total area is very low relative yield for wheat and with 43.30% of total area is very low Relative yield for barley and cotton planting.

DETECTION OF THE SOME HEAVY METALS RESIDUES IN THE LOCAL BULLS TISSUES IN KIRKUK DURING THE WINTER AND SUMMER SEASONS

A. A. Alperkhdrim , M. I. Abdullah and Z. Kh. Khid

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

For the purpose of investigating the levels of some heavy contamination metals in muscle, liver and kidney meat for Cattle in Kirkuk governorate in winter and summer seasons, samples were collected randomly from males (aged 16-18 months) from three districts of Kirkuk governorate (Downtown, Daquq and Debs) During the December and February (winter season) and July and August months of (summer season). There was a significant effect (p?0.05) on the factors (meat type, location and season) in the concentration of lead, Kidney meat in the Downtown in the winter season recorded the highest concentration of lead and significant difference (6.678 ppm) The lowest concentration (0.881 ppm) was found in Liver in Winter. The highest concentration level of cadmium in muscle in summer season from Downtown (3.336 ppm), and lowers Concentration of cadmium (2.106 ppm) recorded in kidney from Daquq in summer season. The concentration of zinc in the Liver at the Downtown in the summer season was the highest concentration (140.052 ppm), while the Kidney in the winter season from Downtown recorded the lowest concentration (30.54 ppm). For Copper the liver in the Downtown in the winter season had the highest concentration (24.520 ppm), while the Liver from the Downtown at summer was recorded lowest concentration (2.383 ppm). For Cobalt, in winter season in Kirkuk, the Muscle recorded the highest concentration of cobalt (7.344 ppm), while the lowest concentration was recorded in Kidney the Winter season from Downtown (1.062 ppm). All types of metals recorded levels higher than the internationally accepted limits.

Effect of lime content of the soil on Its spectral Reflectivity of the Soil

Ahmed M. Mohammad ,Wissam A. Abed , Azhar A. Has

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

An experiment was achieved in laboratories of college of Agriculture / Anbar University. A sample of clay loam soil with 50% lime content was brought from sefen mountain, Shaqlawa district / Erbil province, to study the effect of lime percentage on soil spectral reflectivity. Different lime percentage were removed from origin soil using 0.1 N HCl to obtain same soil texture with 40%, 29.5%, 24.5%, 20%, 15.8% and 9.4% lime contents. Spectroradiometer was used to measure the reflectance of the soil with different lime levels at 22% soil moisture content. The result showed an increasing of the soil reflectance with increasing of lime content. Also the result showed an absorption band at 2350 nanometer was appeard, which may be attributed to the presence of lime in soil. It was noted that the depth of the band was increasing with increasing lime percentage in the soil. Results also showed that a significiant correlation between lime content and reflectance in the all studied bands, especially with the two near infrared bands (B6 and B9) was found, whereas the correlation coefficient (r) for the two bands were 0.968 and 0.958, respectively. The quantitative relationship between the two variables was also found. The linear, quadratic and cubic models were efficient to forecasting lime content from reflectance data at near infrared band (B6). The determination coefficient (R2) for the three models were 0.93, 0.98 and 0.99, respectively. While the standard error values were 3.8, 4.8 and 2.7, respectively.

Using x-ray and FT-IR teqencue to study and comparative two methods of carbonate minerals removal

Muhammod .A. Latef

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

The objective of this study was to obtain the of best method carbonate removal from soil without effect in mineralogical properties. Three soil treatments for soil high content in calcite (Tall Keef region).Were used HCl acid (0.2N), sodium acetate pH (5) treatment and control treatment were conducted compared with control treatment.Results showed Bulk X-ray and XRDclay mineral were that use of HCl acid Caused to removal all carbonate without the effecting in quality and quantity of minerals Comparison with first treatment that it was not great influence. The group of mineral were diagnosed for the three treatments by using the Bulk x-ray showed dominate quartz,calcite,palygorskite,feldspar and kaolinite respectively,while the XRD for clay realated the rule of chlorite, illite,semctite and kaolinite respectively,as for FT-IR appearance group are bands important (1450 )cm-1,which represents carbonate group (dolomite-calcite)and Disappearance with third treatment without second,therefore acetate method is considered inappropriate for measurements which means to remove the carbonate. Meaning that use of HCl acid (0.2), N is optimum method.

Using x-ray and FT-IR teqencue to study and comparative two methods of carbonate minerals removal

Muhammod .A. Latef

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

The objective of this study was to obtain the of best method carbonate removal from soil without effect in mineralogical properties. Three soil treatments for soil high content in calcite (Tall Keef region).Were used HCl acid (0.2N), sodium acetate pH (5) treatment and control treatment were conducted compared with control treatment.Results showed Bulk X-ray and XRDclay mineral were that use of HCl acid Caused to removal all carbonate without the effecting in quality and quantity of minerals Comparison with first treatment that it was not great influence. The group of mineral were diagnosed for the three treatments by using the Bulk x-ray showed dominate quartz,calcite,palygorskite,feldspar and kaolinite respectively,while the XRD for clay realated the rule of chlorite, illite,semctite and kaolinite respectively,as for FT-IR appearance group are bands important (1450 )cm-1,which represents carbonate group (dolomite-calcite)and Disappearance with third treatment without second,therefore acetate method is considered inappropriate for measurements which means to remove the carbonate. Meaning that use of HCl acid (0.2), N is optimum method.

DETECTION OF THE SOME HEAVY METALS RESIDUES IN THE LOCAL BULLS TISSUES IN KIRKUK DURING THE WINTER AND SUMMER SEASONS

A. A. Alperkhdrim , M. I. Abdullah and Z. Kh. Khid

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

For the purpose of investigating the levels of some heavy contamination metals in muscle, liver and kidney meat for Cattle in Kirkuk governorate in winter and summer seasons, samples were collected randomly from males (aged 16-18 months) from three districts of Kirkuk governorate (Downtown, Daquq and Debs) During the December and February (winter season) and July and August months of (summer season). There was a significant effect (p?0.05) on the factors (meat type, location and season) in the concentration of lead, Kidney meat in the Downtown in the winter season recorded the highest concentration of lead and significant difference (6.678 ppm) The lowest concentration (0.881 ppm) was found in Liver in Winter. The highest concentration level of cadmium in muscle in summer season from Downtown (3.336 ppm), and lowers Concentration of cadmium (2.106 ppm) recorded in kidney from Daquq in summer season. The concentration of zinc in the Liver at the Downtown in the summer season was the highest concentration (140.052 ppm), while the Kidney in the winter season from Downtown recorded the lowest concentration (30.54 ppm). For Copper the liver in the Downtown in the winter season had the highest concentration (24.520 ppm), while the Liver from the Downtown at summer was recorded lowest concentration (2.383 ppm). For Cobalt, in winter season in Kirkuk, the Muscle recorded the highest concentration of cobalt (7.344 ppm), while the lowest concentration was recorded in Kidney the Winter season from Downtown (1.062 ppm). All types of metals recorded levels higher than the internationally accepted limits.

Effect of lime content of the soil on Its spectral Reflectivity of the Soil

Ahmed M. Mohammad ,Wissam A. Abed , Azhar A. Has

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

An experiment was achieved in laboratories of college of Agriculture / Anbar University. A sample of clay loam soil with 50% lime content was brought from sefen mountain, Shaqlawa district / Erbil province, to study the effect of lime percentage on soil spectral reflectivity. Different lime percentage were removed from origin soil using 0.1 N HCl to obtain same soil texture with 40%, 29.5%, 24.5%, 20%, 15.8% and 9.4% lime contents. Spectroradiometer was used to measure the reflectance of the soil with different lime levels at 22% soil moisture content. The result showed an increasing of the soil reflectance with increasing of lime content. Also the result showed an absorption band at 2350 nanometer was appeard, which may be attributed to the presence of lime in soil. It was noted that the depth of the band was increasing with increasing lime percentage in the soil. Results also showed that a significiant correlation between lime content and reflectance in the all studied bands, especially with the two near infrared bands (B6 and B9) was found, whereas the correlation coefficient (r) for the two bands were 0.968 and 0.958, respectively. The quantitative relationship between the two variables was also found. The linear, quadratic and cubic models were efficient to forecasting lime content from reflectance data at near infrared band (B6). The determination coefficient (R2) for the three models were 0.93, 0.98 and 0.99, respectively. While the standard error values were 3.8, 4.8 and 2.7, respectively.

ROLE OF GROWTH REGULATORS BRS AND CPPU IN GROWTH AND LEAVES MINERAL AND HORMONAL CONTENT OF OLIVE TRANSPLANTS

E. H. Elsadig , E. A. Al-Hadethi , T. A. Hamdullah

Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences,

This study was conducted in the olive orchard, in Habbaniyah city, Anbar province 84 km west of Baghdad during 2018 growing seasons to investigate the influence of brassinolide (BRs) and CPPU spray on 2 year's old trees of “Nebali” olive cultivar. This study included two treatments: three levels of spraying of BRs, 0 (BR0), 1mg L-1 (BR1) and 2mg L-1 (BR2) and four levels of spraying of cytokinins (CPPU), 0 (C0), 2.5mg L-1 (C2.5), 5mg L-1 (C5) and 10mg L-1 (C10) and their interaction. Treatments were replicated three times with two transplants in experimental unit at factorial experiment in a RCBD. The number of trees used was 72 trees. The experimental results showed that BRs spray at 2 mg L-1 gave the highest leaves chlorophyll content of 62.69 SPAD units, leaves dry weight of 29.49 %, highest leaf area of 6.80 cm2, leaf nitrogen content of 1.169 %, highest leaf IAA content of 44.49 ?g g-1 FW and highest leaf GA content of 150.24 ?g g-1 FW. Results also showed that CPPU spray at levels 10 mg L-1 superiority of the control treatment and gave the highest leaves chlorophyll content of 62.89 SPAD units, leaves dry weight of 28.92 %, leaf IAA content of 41.82 ?g g-1 FW and highest leaf GA content of 134.00 ?g g-1 FW .The lowest value of these parameters was found in the control (BR0C0)



Anbar Journal of Agricultural Sciences


Publisher: University of Anbar
E-Mail: anbar-agri-jour@uoanbar.edu.iq
Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Dr. Yas K. Al-Hadithi